基于外部性理论的城市水环境治理机制创新研究

——以武汉水专项为例

  时间:2010-09-28

摘 要改革开放以来,工业化和城市化的快速发展伴随着城市水环境的急剧恶化。城市发展对水环境的影响就产生了外部性,其实质是私人收益或私人成本通过外部性转移给了社会。传统的城市水环境治理被作为政府的“非生产性福利事业”不具有可持续性。“武汉水专项”经验表明,城市水环境治理应当构建以政府为主导的新型市场机制和利益平衡机制,培育城市水环境治理的专业市场,改善城市水环境,推动土地升值和经济发展,以治理收益补偿水环境治理成本,形成良性的动态经济循环,将城市水环境保护发展成具有巨大市场的产业,实现生态效益、经济效益和社会效益的统一。

关键词水环境;治理机制;外部性;武汉水专项

Urban Water Environment Governance Mechanisms Innovative Research Based on the Externality Theory -------- Wuhan Water Project

(Li Xuesong, Gao Xing)

(Economics and Management School of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China 430072)

Abstract: Since reform and opening up, industrialization and urbanization accompanied by the rapid development of rapid deterioration of urban water environment. Urban development on environmental impact of water generated the external characteristic; the essence is that the private income or the private cost has transferred to the society through the externality. The traditional urban water environment governance is regarded by the government as the "non-productive welfare", has two external issues: First, the government has burdened the cost of lessening the pollution; Second, the environment premium income brought by the government water environment governance has been transferred to the related management principal as the real estate merchant. Therefore urban water environment governance is not sustainable. "Wuhan Water Project" Experience shows that the urban water environment governance should build a government-led, with the measures of market mechanisms and balance the interests to refer the newly-pattern urban water environment governance to nurture the special market of the urban water environment governance. Through the specified enterprise to offer the governance service to the water environment, improving the urban water environment, promoting the land value and the economic development to pay the governance income to the water environment governance enterprise to form the good dynamic economic cycling to turn the urban water environment protection to tremendous market industry to realize the unification of the ecological benefit, economic benefit and the social benefit.

Key words: water environment; Governance Mechanism; Externality; Wuhan Water Project

1 引言

水环境是衡量一个城市居住、投资与旅游环境好坏的重要标志[1]。改革开放以来,工业化和城市化推动了城市经济的保持快速增长,但城市水环境急剧恶化,促使环境保护与经济增长的矛盾逐渐激化,治理城市水环境成为关系民生的重大课题。

城市水环境治理,一方面建设污水处理设施,处理“增量污染物”,实现达标排放;另一方面通过生态设施降低城市水环境中的“存量污染物”,改善生态环境,提供高品质的人居环境,带动旅游业、房地产业和整个地区经济的发展。[2]城市水环境治理,作为政府服务功能的体现,通常由政府指定相关职能部门进行管理,完全由政府的行政机制控制,沿袭行政管理模式。[3]其运作模式简单,易于操作和控制,在短期内有很明显的效果,但缺乏可持续性。其原因在于:传统的城市水环境治理完全依靠工程性措施,不重视制度建设和社会资本积累,未能将水环境纳入整个生态系统和人类社会系统,无法统筹兼顾地解决水环境的相关问题,最终导致水环境治理的效果欠佳。

当前,我国的工业化和城市化发展正处在关键时期,新一轮的经济建设高潮即将到来,主要产业和人民生活的需水量会进一步增长,污水的排放量也会增加,水体污染加快,水环境面临更大的压力。因此,如何创新城市水环境治理机制,实现经济、社会和水环境保护的协调发展,将是我国落实科学发展观,实施可持续发展战略所面对的重大课题。本文试图从外部性理论的角度来分析城市水环境治理的机制问题,并以“武汉水专项”为例,提出城市水环境治理机制的新框架。

来源:中国改革论坛 [关闭] [收藏] [打印]

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